Training session in Dumfries and Galloway (October 2017)

Doing Fieldwork

Surveying

 

Once you have located the panels you want to record, you will need to spend some time having a rapid but thorough look at the surrounding area (called a ‘walkover survey’). This will give you a better understanding of the terrain, and the history and current use of the landscape. You may even find rock art that has been overlooked in the past. If you can recognise other archaeological monuments and features, these may help you build up an understanding of why the rock art is there, and how it might have been affected over time by human activity (see Finding rock art).

 

Next, think carefully about how many ‘panels’ you are recording. 

 

Preparing the panel

Once you have found the rock art, you may find that it is overgrown with vegetation or turf, so that it is difficult to see the carvings and the rock surface. In these cases, some cleaning of the rock is necessary so that you can then make a full and accurate record of the panel. We need to limit the impact on the rock surface, as all interaction affects the carvings.

Please only clean the panel if you are part of a trained Community Team and plan to make a one-off detailed record. The rock art is fragile. Repetitive cleaning will damage the rock surface and may speed up erosion of the prehistoric carvings.

If you do need to clean the panel to record it for our rock art database, please make sure that you follow our guidance notes: Preparing the Panel for Recording. These approaches have been developed with the approval of Historic Environment Scotland. If the panel is a Scheduled Monument or within a Scheduled Monument, such as a prehistoric burial, please contact us before you start.

Once you have cleaned the panel and done a walkover survey, you are ready to begin recording!

 

Recording

Creating a good record is vital to future understanding, awareness, and conservation. The methods we use have been developed and thoroughly tested over many years  by specialists and community groups in England and Scotland. To find out more about previous community rock art recording projects, such as the Northumberland and Durham Rock Art Project, and Carved Stones Investigations: Rombalds Moor, visit the England’s Rock Art website. We use a combination of techniques to record the rock art and its contexts at different scales. These include:

 

Text-based recording

Detailed information about the rock art, the rock surface, and the landscape setting of the panel is recorded using our Recording Form. Please read our guidance notes for Using the Recording Form very carefully before you start, and refer to this guidance when are doing the recording.

If you are part of a trained Community Team, you can login to your personal space on this website (MyScRAP) and prepare recording forms for known panels in advance. You can then check any existing information and add to it when you are in the field. When you have collected all the information you need, you will be able to upload it to our database using the online recording form. 

 

Sketching

Sketches of the panel location and the carved rock surface help us understand the rock art and its setting. They are also very useful for finding the right panel again in the future. You don’t need to be good at drawing to produce a clear sketch! It is more important that you decide what information other people might need to know, and show this in a way that someone who has not visited the panel can understand.

Sketching can be very enjoyable and will become easier the more you do, so it is well worth practising.

You can find out more about creating a Location Sketch and a Panel Sketch in our guidance on Using the Recording Form. We have also put together some Drawing Conventions which we recommend that you use for all your sketches so that they are consistent and easier to understand.

 

Georeferencing

This means taking a grid reference of the panel so that it can be plotted on a map or satellite image. An accurate grid reference is one of the most important pieces of information to record as it will allow us to explore how the rock art is distributed across Scotland, and how it relates to other monuments and features in the landscape.

How to take an accurate grid reference: Use a hand-held Global Positioning System (GPS) device, a mobile phone, or a tablet and hold it directly over the panel in order to record a 10 or 12 figure grid reference. This should be in the Ordnance Survey format (e.g. NZ 12345 67890). For more information, please see our guidance on taking grid references in Using the Rock Art Recording Form.

 

PHOTOGRAPHY

Good photographs are essential for documenting rock art and its surroundings, as well as for helping other people identify the carvings. It can take time to perfect your technique, so it is worth practising, and looking critically at your photographs to see if they could be improved in any way.

Lighting can have a dramatic effect on the quality of your photographs and the visibility of the carvings. Carvings that are virtually invisible under certain lighting conditions (particularly in the middle of the day, or on dull, overcast days), can be incredibly clear at other times of day or year when the light is oblique.

You can find more tips for taking good rock art photographs in our Photography for Rock Art Recording guidance. This guidance also describes what images we recommend that people record for the Scotland's Rock Art Project (ScRAP database). 

 

3D Modelling (3D photography)

Structure from Motion (SfM) is a 3D modelling method for creating digital 3-dimensional (3D) images (or models) of objects from a sequence of 2D photographs. This technique is ideal for recording rock art because it allows us to clearly ‘see’ carvings that are often very eroded and almost invisible to the naked eye. A 3D model recreates the shape and relief of the rock surface (the surface topography), producing a precise replica of the motifs and the rock on which they are carved. This method enables measurements to be taken of the motifs and the rock. Anyone can then study the rock art in detail from the comfort of their own computer. Image-based modelling technology (e.g. photogrammetry) has developed rapidly in the last decade, and it is now inexpensive and very easy to use. You don’t need any special equipment – just a camera and a scale bar.

Working with our Community Teams, we aim to create 3D models of up to 2000 prehistoric carved rocks in Scotland. These models will be publicly accessible in each panel record on our website, and a selection will be displayed in our Images section, and in Canmore. This will be a fantastic resource which will enable people across the world to explore Scotland’s rock art in detail, without having to get wet and muddy!

We are using the Structure from Motion (SfM) method, which involves taking multiple, overlapping photographs of a carved rock surface. The photographs are then processed into a 3D model using specific software. The software recognises and matches common points in each photograph, and puts them all together to form a 3D shape. For this project we are using a software called Agisoft Photoscan, but there are other types of freeware available, such as VisualSfM or Regard 3D amongst many others. 

See our Field Photography for 3D Modelling for more information about how to use this technique for recording rock art, and Creating a 3D Model for guidance on creating a 3D model using the Agisoft Photoscan software

 

Reflectance Transformation Imaging (RTI)

RTI is used to create digital models from a set photographs taken under controlled lighting conditions. It enables detailed exploration of the rock’s texture, highlighting fine details such as shallow carvings, tool marks, and narrow engraved lines, which are often not visible in the field or in conventional photographs.

RTI is quite simple to use, and becomes easier with practice. We will use RTI to document a few specific panels where we need more detail of the carvings. A selection of the RTI images will be available in the Images section of our website.

This method is inexpensive, but does require some different equipment (such as a black billiard ball!). It involves taking a sequence of photographs from a fixed point, while shining a bright light from different positions towards a particular motif or small area of the carved surface. The black billiard ball (or other shiny sphere), which is placed on the rock surface, reflects the light across the rock and highlights fine details. This detail is then captured in the photographs. The final RTI model is created using special software which stitches all the photographs together. Since the position of the billiard ball is the same in every photo, the software is able to identify the direction of the light sources and create controlled lighting conditions. The lighting conditions can then be manipulated using another free software programme (RTI Viewer) in order to visualize the recorded motif.

You can learn more about the RTI technique, and download the free software from the Cultural Heritage Imaging (CHI) website. 

 

 

 

Identifying carvings

Identifying carvings

 

 

Measuring the panel

Measuring the panel 

 

 

Carefully cleaning the surface with appropriate tools
 

 

Clearing the motifs of loose vegetation or moss

Clearing the motifs of loose vegetation or moss

 

 

Using beads or other types of markers can be useful to count the motifs, especially cup-marks

Using beads or other types of markers can be useful to count the motifs, especially cup-marks

 

 

Georreferencing rock art

Georreferencing the panels will guarantee that they are found again in the future

 

 

Filling out the recording form

Filling out the recording form

 

 

Identifying the type of grain size and other components of the rock

Identifying the type of grain size and other components of the rock 

 

 

Photographing the carved panel

Photographing the carved panel

 

Remember to include your scale-bar and north arrow in your pictures!

Remember to include your scale-bar and north arrow in your pictures! 

Record

The Scotland's Rock Art Project is working with several trained Community Teams to build a consistent, publicly accessible database of prehistoric carvings using specific recording methods.

 

Recording Rock Art

Creating detailed, digital records of Scotland's rock art is essential for better understanding, sustainability, and public awareness. You can find out about our recording methods in this section!

Finding Rock Art

Finding rock art is very rewarding, but often quite difficult! In this section we offer a few tips that may help you find those 'hidden' panels. 

 

Getting Involved

If you are interested in rock art, enjoy being out and about, and would like to be involved with the Scotland's Rock Art Project, then check out this section for details. 

Getting Started

Before going out and looking for rock art, there are some important things that you should be aware of. You will also need to know what equipment to use. You can find out all about it here! 

Training

To be part of one of our Community Teams, we recommended that you attend our training sessions. In these training sessions you will learn how to find, identify, and record rock art using a range of techniques. 

Fieldwork Preparation

Follow these simple steps to prepare for a fantastic day out doing fieldwork and recording rock art. Don't forget your wellingtons and waterproofs! 

 

After Fieldwork

Fieldwork is only one part of the method for recording rock art. In this section you can read about how to process information captured in the field, and how to build 3D models of the carved rocks. 

Data Entry

Once you have processed all the information collected in the field, your photographs, and your 3D models, you can upload it into our database. Find out how in this section.